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Simulium damnosum

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Simulium damnosum is the primary vector for the Onchocerca volvulus filarial worm, or river blindness parasite that affects humans in Africa. Transmission to humans occurs during feeding of S. damnosum, when the filarial worm travels from the proboscis of the fly into the bleeding wound. River blindness is not fatal, but does cause disfigurement and blindness; approximately 18 million people. Simulium is a genus of black flies, which may transmit diseases such as onchocerciasis (river blindness). It is a large genus with several hundred species, and 41 subgenera.. The flies are pool feeders. Their saliva, which contains anticoagulants, a number of enzymes and histamine, is mixed with the blood, preventing clotting until it is ingested by the fly Simulium damnosum. By JOHN WALSH. See all Hide authors and affiliations. Science 23 May 1986: Vol. 232, Issue 4753, pp. 923 DOI: 10.1126/science.232.4753.923 . Article; Info & Metrics; eLetters ; PDF; This is a PDF-only article. The first page of the PDF of this article appears above.. Synonyms for Simulium damnosum in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Simulium damnosum. 1 synonym for Simulium: genus Simulium. What are synonyms for Simulium damnosum

Background. Onchocerciasis is caused by a nematode worm Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted in Sudan by black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum sensu lato species complex. In Sudan, the disease is found in four foci where fast flowing rivers provide suitable breeding sites for the Simulium vector flies. The construction of dams and irrigation schemes for agricultural purposes has. Simulium: ( si-mū'lē-ŭm ), A genus of biting gnats or midges, the black flies, humpbacked flies, or buffalo gnats in the dipteran family Simuliidae. The aquatic larvae require swift-flowing streams or highly oxygenated waters for their development, a critical epidemiologic factor in the role of these flies as disease vectors. In Central and. A black fly or blackfly (sometimes called a buffalo gnat, turkey gnat, or white socks) is any member of the family Simuliidae of the Culicomorpha infraorder.They are related to the Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, and Thaumaleidae.Over 2,200 species of black flies have been formally named, of which 15 are extinct. They are divided into two subfamilies: Parasimuliinae contains only one genus and.

ADW: Simulium damnosum: INFORMATIO

Simulium erythrocephalum legt die Eier an Wasserpflanzen in Höhe des Wasserspiegels, Bei den Krankheitsüberträgern handelt es sich ausschließlich um einige Vertreter der Gattung Simulium, etwa S. damnosum und S. neavei in Afrika und S. callidum und S. metallicum in Mittelamerika, ferner S. ochraceum in Mittel- und Südamerika. Auch andere Filariose-Erreger, etwa Mansonella ozzardi. Simulium damnosum: species that is an important vector of onchocerciasis in central Africa Simulium vector flies (so called blackflies). Simulium damnosum s.l. is the main vector of human onchocerciasis in Cameroon and is also the main local vector of Onchocerca ochengi.There are at least 4 main (sub-)species found in the rain-forest and savanna: Simulium sirbanum: A small and very pale species, only found in the Sudan savanna. Simulium damnosum sensu stricto: Savanna mainly, but. Simulium damnosum s.s. and S. sirbanum are known to be capable of regular wind-assisted migrations of >400 km, and they can move in such large numbers that they can threaten the success of control efforts in the areas that they reach (Walsh et al., 1981; Baker et al., 1990). In contrast, S. squamosum seems to cross shorter distances (up to 125 km; Cheke and Garms, 1983), and S. yahense may. The English summary appended to the paper is as follows: - Studies on the epidemiology of onchoceroiasis in Liberia included a survey on the breeding places of the vector, Simulium damnosum, which was found to be distributed throughout the country. The species appeared to be more common in regions where the original tropical rain forest had been destroyed and replaced by farmland, rubber..

si·mu·li·um (sə-myo͞o′lē-əm) n. Any of various black flies of the genus Simulium, several species of which transmit the parasitic filarial worms that cause onchocerciasis. [New Latin Simulium, genus name, from Latin simulāre, to simulate; see simulate.] simulium (sɪˈmjuːlɪəm) n (Animals) a blood-sucking, tropical fly of the genus Simulium. The DNA sequence of portions of the 16s rRNA and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were used to determine phylogenetic relationships in the Simulium damnosum s.l. species complex. Results suggested that at least two major clades existed in the S. damnosum species complex, and that members of the S. damnosum s.l. species complex were not closely related to North American Simulium.

Simulium - Wikipedi

Simulium damnosum Scienc

  1. Simulium spp. Black fly are true flies from the family Simuliidae in the order Diptera. Female Black flies feed on blood and are the scourge of many river banks. They are found almost globally, from the tropics to the Arctic tundra. Black fly are small stocky flies, 2 to 5 mm in length, black or dark brown in colour. They are always associated with running water, in which the larvae live.
  2. OF SIMULIUM DAMNOSUM SPECIES COMPLEX CHAPTER 3. EXPERIMENTS TOWARDS LABORATORY COLONIZATION 3.1 General introduction 51 3.2 Specific objectives 53 3.3 The laboratory maintenance of adult female flies Simulium damnosum s.I. 54 3.3.1 Introduction 5
  3. Abstract. Simulium damnosum is the main African vector of onchocerciasis. The name S. damnosum, which is used throughout the present paper for the sake of simplicity, covers in fact a relatively large number of forms whose taxonomic status is yet uncertain.Most observations reported here deal with the S. damnosum complex forms found in West Africa and, especially, with those presently called.

The distribution of the Simulium damnosum complex in West Africa with particular reference to the Onchocerciasis Control Programme area. Tropenmed Parasitol (2011). Ubachukwu PO: A guide to the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Nigeria with a cytotaxonomic key for the identification of the sibling species. Ann Trop Med Parasitol (1972). Vajime CG: The Simulium (Edwardsellum. This taxonomy names cytoforms of Simulium damnosum Theobald s.l. based on chromosomal inversion polymorphisms. Researchers have linked variation in cytoforms to variation in geographical distributions and biological traits, but have failed to demonstrate that many of these cytoforms are differentiated genetically or morphologically. This may be explained by recent divergence and incomplete. Corpus ID: 35611320. BIOECOLOGY OF SIMULIUM DAMNOSUM THEOBALD COMPLEX ALONG OSUN RIVER, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA @inproceedings{Adeleke2011BIOECOLOGYOS, title={BIOECOLOGY OF SIMULIUM DAMNOSUM THEOBALD COMPLEX ALONG OSUN RIVER, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA}, author={M. A. Adeleke and Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo and Ganiyu Olatunji Olatunde and O. P. Akinwale and Uwem Friday Ekpo and Chiedu Felix Mafiana}, year={2011}

Video: Simulium damnosum synonyms, Simulium damnosum antonyms

The Simulium damnosum complex has approximately 60 sibling species and cytoforms [15,16], which differ in their geographical distribution, ecological features, degree of anthropophily (attraction. volvulus associated with extremely high annual biting rates by the vectors, members of Simulium damnosum sensu lato species complex. Models show that vector abundance must be considered in situations where annual biting rates are high because treatment with ivermectin may not be able to achieve elimination on its own [7, 8]. Thus, there is a need for local vector control that is complementary.

Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal.Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.Simulium sanctipauli belongs to this complex, is an onchocerciasis vector and is distributed in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali. Als Zwischenwirt dient die weibliche Kriebelmücke (Simulium damnosum), die die Mikrofilarien beim Stich aufnimmt. In der Mücke entwickeln sich die Larven durch Häutung zum infektiösen Stadium L3, in dem sie bei erneutem Stich auf den Menschen übertragen werden. Sie wandern ein bis zwei Jahre durch das Bindegewebe und gelegentlich durch die Augen. Ausgewachsene (adulte) Würmer überleben. The control Simulium damnosum in River Niger and its tributacles in relation to the Kainji lake Research Project, 1961 - 1968. WHO/PDI 70.4. WHO-World Health Organization. 1995. Onchocerciasis and its control. Report of a WHO Expert Committee on onchocerciasis control. Technical Report Series . 852: 1 - 104. OpenURL Placeholder Text. Google Scholar. Yap. HH. Jahangir. K. Chong. AS. Adanan.

Simulium - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Simulium damnosum synonyms, Simulium damnosum pronunciation, Simulium damnosum translation, English dictionary definition of Simulium damnosum. n. Any of various black flies of the genus Simulium, several species of which transmit the parasitic filarial worms that cause onchocerciasis Simulium damnosum s.l. consists of at least nine sibling species and numerous geographically distinct cytotypes. Six of these cytospecies serve as major vectors for O. volvulus in West Africa (World Health Organization 1995). Previous studies have implicated the savanna-dwelling species of S. damnosum s.l., S. damnosum sensu strictu Theobald and S. sirbanum Vajime & Dunbar, as the vectors for. SEM of Simulian blackfly (simulium damnosum) showing the compound eye x 130, colour enhanced ID: ARY41E (RM) Onchocerca volvulus parasitic worm, computer illustration. O. volvulus is the causative agent of onchocerciasis or river blindness (Onchocerca worm infestation) Cytotaxonomic analysis of the polytene chromosomes from larvae of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex from the island of Bioko in Equatorial Guinea is reported, and a new endemic cytoform is described. Chromosomally this cytoform is close to both S. squamosum (Enderlein) and S. yahense Vajime & Dunbar, but is not identical to either In Africa, the Simulium damnosum (sensu lato) species complex, with about 60 cytoforms, is the main vector responsible for more than 95% of onchocerciasis cases. In West Africa, the vectors are various cytoforms of the Simulium damnosum complex, which differ in their ecologies and vectorial roles

Simulium damnosum s.l. generally travels no further than 12 km from its river source in search of a blood meal and intense transmission of the parasite, resulting in hyper-endemic prevalence levels of disease are generally confined to communities located within 10 km of a river, Fish brain acetylcholinesterase activity after Abate applications against Simulium damnosum in the Volta River Basin Area View/ Open 326166-eng.pdf (‎1.454Mb) World Health Organization, Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin Area & Davies, J.B. (‎1984)‎. The species of the simulium damnosum complex in Africa West of the control and transmission of onchocerciasis. Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin Area In previous studies, we identified a genetically isolated strain of Wolbachia from the West African onchocerciasis vector Simulium squamosum E (a member of the S. damnosum sensu lato [s.l.] species complex [Diptera: Simuliidae]) and identified bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing its FtsZ cell-division gene (Crainey et al., 2010a, b)

Biting densities of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex of blackflies and their levels of parasitism by Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) were compared at two ecologically contrasted sites in the Southern Province of Sierre Leone, West Africa: by the Tabe riverside close to Gbaiima village where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic (63.1% positive skin-snips) and in open rice fields 2 km from the. Simulium damnosum is a species complex of 55 named cytoforms (cytospecies and cytotypes), the largest known species complex of any vector, insect or animal.Simulium damnosum complex is distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.Simulium damnosum sensu stricto is an onchocerciasis vector distributed in Uganda, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic. malophilic) Simulium species such as S. (Metomphalus) hargreavesi (FREEMAN & DE MEILLON, 1953) and the prominently toothed claws found in many (ornithophilic) Simulium species.Howev-er, a few members of the S. damnosum complex are also known for their toothed claws. Such species are S.pandanophilum (KRÜGERETAL.,1998), S.juxtadamnosum (GOUTEUX,1977), and S..

Notes on distribution of Simulium damnosum s

Transmission indices such as monthly population density (MPD) of Simulium damnosum complex in the study site, the daily biting rate (DBR), monthly biting rate (MBR), infective biting rate, the percentage of parous flies in the total dissected (proportion of parous flies), and monthly transmission potential (MTP) of Simulium damnosum complex were calculated according to previously published methods. 21,2 Key wordsNigeria - Onchocerciasis - Simulium damnosum - transmission dynamics Introduction Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness caused by Onchocerca volvulus is a chronic parasitic infec-tion with a public health and socioeconomic problem of considerable magnitude in many sub-Saharan Af- rican countries 1,2. The disease affects about 17 to 18 million people in 37 countries of. IRUS Total Downloads. Altmetri Simulium damnosum s.s. and S. sirbanum are often sympatric and morphologically similar; therefore, due to uncertainties in their definitive identification, with previous molecular techniques not proving to be robust, results for these species were combined. Any remaining undissected flies were morphologically identified in the laboratory in the UK and head plus thoraces and abdomens separated. Volatile oils of Citrus sinensis, Ageratum conyzoides, Cymbopogon citratus, Callistemon rigidus and Ocimum gratissimum were tested as repellents against blackfly, Simulium damnosum s.l., the vector of human onchocerciaisis

Simulium definition of Simulium by Medical dictionar

A Black Fly (Simulium argus) 1473876; A Black Fly (Simulium bivittatum) 1473749; A Black Fly (Simulium meridionale) 1473899; A Black Fly (Simulium venator) 1473750; Striped Black Fly (Simulium vittatum) 1473752; Whitestockinged Black Fly (Simulium venustum) 147375 Simulium damnosum (Black fly) Status. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at transcript level i. Function i. This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6 dihydroxyindole to indole-5'6 quinone..

Simulium damnosum: information (1) Species Simulium dandrettai. Species Simulium danense. Species Simulium danijari. Species Simulium darjeelingense. Species Simulium dasguptai. Species Simulium davaoense. Species Simulium dawaense. Species Simulium deagostinii. Species Simulium debacli. Species Simulium debegene. Species Simulium decafile. Species Simulium decafiliatum. Species Simulium. Simulium damnosum s.l in Ogun State, South West Nigeria. The river is a fast flowing stream with rocky rapids embedded with large pebbles and coarse, sharp sand bed. The vegetation profile was determined using a line transect 50m × 50m vegetation plots at the four cardinal points of the breeding sites to calculate the frequency of occurrence of dominant flora species. Plant leaves were. The disease is spread by Simulium damnosum which breads in fast-flowing waters like dams and rivers. Health impact assessment of the heightening of Roseires Dam/Sudan (2004) reported the presence of Simulium silvestre, an ornithophilic species, at Rankin Inlet, as well as other ornithophilic species (e.g., Simulium anatinum and S (Simulium damnosum ss, and S. sirbanum) abundant in Touba and Bouaflé with 2900 blackflies captured, and the forest group species (S. squamosum, S. sanctipauli, S. soubrense) present only in Soubré with 1103 blackflies. Genetic polymorphism of s. damnosum s.l populations Electrophoretic profiles (Fig.1) obtained after the PCR reveals 33 different alleles in the whole populations. 17 alleles. Simulium damnosum . complex . are . capable of migrating across long distances into controlled areas, potentially reintroducing infections (Baker . et . aZ., 1990). In the absence of any effective alternative, all entomological monitoring is still carried out by the collection of biting female . flies . on human bait, over an 11 h period on selected days (Anon., 1995), a method which in.

Black fly - Wikipedi

Summary Cytotaxonomic analysis of Simulium damnosum s.l. larvae collected from 23 sites across 4 bioclimatic zones in Nigeria revealed the presence of 5 cytospecies (S. damnosum s.str., S. sirbanum, S. squamosum, S. yahense and S. soubrense (including the Beffa form). The biogeographical distribution of the sibling species was mostly similar to that observed further west in the OCP area. KEY WORDS: Simulium damnosum s.l., Pterocarpus santalinoides, attraction. In West Africa, human onchocerciasis is transmitted by members of Simulium damnosum sensu lato which differ in their epidemiological significance in different ecological zones (Ibeh et al., 2008). Human onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca volvulus is a severely debilitating disease. It constitutes one of the major public. Simulium damnosum Theo. breeds over a total distance of about 90 miles in the rocky parts of three rivers that drain the Abuia Emirate, Northern Nigeria, and an experiment on the possibility of controlling it with DDT was carried out in 1956-60 [cf. R.A.E., B 52 87, etc.]. For the first two years, DDT was applied in diesel oil to give a calculated dose of 1-2 part p, p'DDT per million for 30.. Simulium soubrense Beffa form, S. squamosum C and S. sanctipauli Pra form were the most anthropophagic (HBI = 0.92, 0.86 and 0.70, respectively); S. squamosum E, S. yahense and S. damnosum (sensu stricto) (s.s.)/S. sirbanum were the most zoophagic (HBI = 0.44, 0.53 and 0.63, respectively). The degree of anthropophagy decreased (but not. Simulium damnosum is the main vector of human onchocerciasis over a large part of tropical Africa. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on the habits of this insect-as summarized by Freeman and de Meillon 1 -there are many points in its biology which are still obscure, one of the most important of these being the normal method and site of oviposition

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Simulium damnosum is the main vector of human onchocerciasis over a large part of tropical Africa. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on the habits of this insect—as summarized. Similium damnosum‎ (2 F) Simulium trifasciatum‎ (2 F) V Simulium venustum‎ (4 F) Simulium vittatum‎ (1 F) Media in category Simulium The following 36 files are in this category, out of 36 total. Bonner zoologische Monographien (1990) (19772502373) .jpg 2,452 × 3,362; 763 KB. Onchocerca volvulus emerging from a black fly.jpg 900 × 657; 117 KB. Annual report of the Forest, Fish and. New Members of Simulium damnosum Species Complex from Ethiopia: Cytoforms of S. damnosum s.l. in Ethiopia | Mamuye Hadis | ISBN: 9783639243994 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon

Key words: Simulium damnosum s. l., Simulium alcocki , sensu lacto, karyotype, mitotic. INTRODUCTION The blackfly is the vector of the disease Onchocerciasis caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart (Nematoda: Filariodea), with about 1.8 million people affected worldwide (Wilson and Post, 1994). Onchocerciasis is a very debilitating disease with heavy infection resulting in. The phylogenetic relationships of East and West African members of the Simulium damnosum complex were studied by sequence analyses of the mitochondrial 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Results suggest that: (i) the S. damnosum complex is divided into an East and a West African clade, and (ii) S. pandanophilum and the cytoform 'Kiwira' form an East African subbranch distinct from the 'Sanje.

This page was last edited on 2 December 2019, at 14:37. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.By. Simulium damnosum s.l. generally travels no further than 12 km from its river source in search of a blood meal [15] and intense transmission of the parasite, resulting in hyper-endemic prevalence levels of disease are generally confined to communities located within 10 km of a river [16,17]. For these reasons, the common name of ''river blindness'' has been used to describe. IN the northern territories of Ghana and other savannah areas of West Africa, many of the smaller rivers which form the breeding places of Simulium damnosum in the rainy season are liable either to dry up completely in the course of the long dry season or to be reduced to a series of stagnant pools unsuitable for breeding. When these streams start to flow again at the onset of rains, the rapid. Ayinde, Preliminary evaluation of the repellent activity of some plant essential oils against Simulium damnosum s.l., the vector of human onchocerciasis, International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, vol. Gold Pressed Essential Oil: An Essay on the Volatile Fragment from Citrus Juice Industry By-Products Chemistry and Bioactivity . Pode-se considerar que a especie Simulium inaequale.

Simulium Damnosumの日本語への翻訳をチェックしましょう。文章の翻訳例Simulium Damnosum を見て、発音を聞き、文法を学びます Simulium erythrocephalum legt die Eier an Wasserpflanzen in Höhe des Wasserspiegels, Bei den Krankheitsüberträgern handelt es sich ausschließlich um einige Vertreter der Gattung Simulium, etwa S. damnosum und S. neavei in Afrika und S. callidum und S. metallicum in Mittelamerika, ferner S. ochraceum in Mittel- und Südamerika. Siehe auch: Parasiten des Menschen. Systematik. Die. This study assessed the infectivity of Simulium damnosum s.l. around Owena through the evaluation of transmission indices such as the daily biting rate, monthly biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly transmission potential as well as evaluated therapeutic coverage of ivermectin distribution in the area. Materials and methods . Study area. The study area is located in Owena town.

Simulium damnosum has been found to invade the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa from perennial forest breeding sites 200 to 400 km to the south-west, being carried on the early wet season SW monsoon winds. This explains their appearance in northern savanna country before the rivers begin to flow again after the dry season. Response to varying conditions Simuliids have to survive. Simulium damnosum (SIMUDA) Menu. Overview → Overview . Code created in: 1996-10-16. Basic information. EPPO Code: SIMUDA ; Preferred name: Simulium damnosum ; Authority: Theobald ; Propose photo. Taxonomy. Kingdom Animalia ( 1ANIMK ) Phylum Arthropoda ( 1ARTHP ) Subphylum Hexapoda ( 1HEXAQ ) Class Insecta ( 1INSEC ) Order Diptera ( 1DIPTO ) Family Simuliidae ( 1SIMUF ) Genus Simulium.

Black fly - WikipediaWHO | Life-cycle of Onchocerca volvulusOnchocerciasis - New World EncyclopediaFLY EYE, SEM Stock Photo: 25564161 - AlamyBlackfly Picture GalleryChinese brothers accused of setting up booby traps to kill

Fotodruck, Simulium damnosum simulian blackfly - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei Amazon.de. Gratis Versand durch Amazon schon ab einem Bestellwert von 29€ Simulium damnosum; Simulium sanctipauli; Simulium squamosum; In Asia: Simulium bidentatum; In the Americas: Simulium vittatum; Simulium pertinax; For other species see the list below. Currently, the following species have been entered into the system: Simulium angustipes; Simulium annulus; Simulium aokii; Simulium arakawae ; Simulium arcticum; Simulium argus; Simulium asakoae; Simulium aureum. Background: Onchocerciasis is caused by a nematode worm Onchocerca volvulus, which is transmitted in Sudan by black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum sensu lato species complex. In Sudan, the disease is found in four foci where fast flowing rivers provide suitable breeding sites for the Simulium vector flies Four Sibling Species Included in <i>Simulium damnosum</i> Theobald (Diptera : Simuliidae) from Ugand vector complex Simulium damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae). The socio-economic importance of this parasite has been discussed by Hunter (1966), Waddy (1969) and Bradley (1970). The disease caused by the parasite, River Blindness, is localized in communities close to rocky rivers in which the vector breeds (Le Berre 1966; Duke 1975; Garms, Walsh & Davies 1979). Interruption of transmission is. Monthly dynamics and biting behavior of principal onchocerciasis vector (Simulium damnosum s.l.) in endemic area of Southwest Ethiopia International Journal of One Health, EISSN: 2455-8931 23 International Journal of One Health Available at www.onehealthournal.org/ol.6/No.1/5.pd

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